Energy Storage Systems Hazardous Mitigation Analysis

Energy Storage Systems (ESS) are becoming a prevalent solution to anticipate and mitigate electrical grid disruptions for commercial, industrial, and residential applications.  ESS provide energy reserves to reduce power peaks and stabilize fluctuations in energy supply.  Various ESS technologies have been and are being developed.  Hazards related to ESS, such as fire and toxicity, cannot be ignored.

NFPA 855, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Energy Storage Systems, was developed to provide the minimum requirements to ensure safe design, installation, and operation of ESS.  Depending on the technology, the amount of energy stored, the location, the design, or potential hazards in the vicinity of the ESS, a Hazard Mitigation Analysis (HMA) may be required by the AHJ.  The HMA is a systematic method that considers the various hazards related to the installation, identifies potential failure modes as well as their causes and effects, and develops appropriate mitigation solutions.

NFPA 855 requires the HMA to evaluate the consequences of:

  • Thermal runaway conditions
  • Failure of an energy storage management system
  • Failure of a required ventilation or exhaust system
  • Failure of a required smoke/fire detection system, fire suppression, or gas detection system

The AHJ can require the HMA to include additional failure modes.  It can be completed by either a design team or a third-party.  To be approved, the results of the analysis will need to demonstrate that the mitigation solutions of the installation provide proper fire containment, suitable explosion control, safe egress, and adequate toxic and flammable gas management.  If you have questions regarding how to develop an HMA or if you are in need of a third-party HMA review, please contact us at

Application of any information provided, for any use, is at the reader’s risk and without liability to Code Red Consultants. Code Red Consultants does not warrant the accuracy of any information contained in this blog as applicable codes and standards change over time. The application, enforcement and interpretation of codes and standards may vary between Authorities Having Jurisdiction and for this reason, registered design professionals should be consulted to determine the appropriate application of codes and standards to a specific scope of work.